Cephalometric Norms According to the Harvold´s Analysis

2009 • Volume 3 • Issue 1

Lara-Carrillo, Edith; Kubodera-Ito, Toshio; Gonzalez-Lopez, Blanca; Montiel-Bastida, Norma & Esquivel-Pereyre, Gema



The purpose of this study was to establish cephalometric norms by age and gender of Harvold´s analysis for people living in the central region of Mexico and compare them with other populations to found morphologic craniofacial differences. One hundred sixteen males and 125 females were studied. The participants were divided into age groups. The parents and grandparents of the participants were born in Mexico. All participants had class I occlusion with normal growth, facial symmetry, no crowding and no previous orthodontic, orthopedic or maxillofacial surgery treatment. Lateral skull x-rays were obtained; each radiograph was analyzed on with a Harvold-like analysis. For statistical evaluation, the Student t´ test was used to compare the age groups between males and females. Significant gender differences were found in the following measurements: maxillary position, mandible position, and the anterior lower facial height in all age groups. Differences were found in the cranial and dental positions with other races respect to facial growth. Because every gender and race have their own characteristics, it is appropriate to use correct cephalometric norms in daily orthodontic practice. It is suggested to use the analysis of Harvold in a complementary way when in diagnosing a patient there is doubt on the alterations in the maxillae.

KEY WORDA: cephalometry, normal occlusion, diagnostic methods.


How to cite this article

LARA-CARRILLO, E.; KUBODERA-ITO, T.; GONZALEZ-LOPEZ, B.; MONTIEL-BASTIDA, N. & ESQUIVEL-PEREYRA, G. Cephalometric norms according to the Harvold´s analysis. Int. J. Odontostomat., 3(1):33-39, 2009.


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