The most widely used method to classify prognostic factors in cancers today is TNM. However, Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) often demonstrates different behaviors in relation to aggressiveness and therapeutic response at the same TNM stage. So, in such cases biomarkers can be used to identify the biological diversity of these tumors more reliably, leading to better therapeutic strategies and disease management. The presence of inflammatory immune cells in the tumor microenvironment can have pro or antitumor effects and the investigation of the expression of inflammatory markers in OSSC can be usefulto design immunotherapeutic interventions. The Transforming Growth Factor alpha is a potent stimulator of cell migration that acts on cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis of cancer, as well as immune suppression and angiogenesis. Inflammatory cytokines, such as Interferon-gamma, mediate macrophage differentiation. Macrophages are an important component of the OSCC microenvironment. The greater amount of tumor-associated macrophages, especially the M2 phenotype, may be associated with a more aggressive biological behavior of the OSCC and, consequently, with reduced survival.
KEY WORDS: oral squamous cell carcinoma, transforming growth factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor receptor, cd68 antigen, cd57 antigens, interferon-gamma, biomarkers, prognosis.
How to cite this article
FERREIRA, K. D. M.; RAMOS, R. T.; SODRÉ, C. S.; TANNURE, P. N.; ARMADA, L.; GONÇALVES, L. S.; FERREIRA, D. C. & RIBEIRO, M. G. Pro-and anti-inflammatory biomarkers as potential prognosis markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int. J. Odontostomat., 16(2):258-266, 2022.