Osteonecrosis is also known as avascular necrosis of the bone, it is a degenerative condition produced by the loss of blood flow, due to direct toxicity in the bone tissues caused by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, thermal damage, smoking and in the last decade with the arrival of drugs such as bisphosphonates (BP), denosumab and antigiogenic drugs we have been learning more about this pathology. The main hypothesis of the pathophysiology of this disease is the inhibition of angiogenesis, but soft tissue toxicity or acquired immunity dysfunction are also considered as hypotheses. In 2003, the relationship between BP and osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) was reported for the first time. In the same year it was described that multiple myeloma patients receiving pamidronate could develop avascular necrosis of the jaws. Other publications reported about patients requiring treatment for spontaneously intra-oral bone necrosis after dental extractions or oral trauma. The first name for this pathology was (BRONJ) for its English acronym, it referred to ONJ related to BF. In 2014 the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) published a new definition (position paper) renaming it MRONJ (drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaws) ONMRM. The role of identifying patients at risk of ONMRM is fundamental. Studies have shown that the risk of developing the condition can be substantially reduced if patients are evaluated by a dental professional and preventive measures are taken Exposure of bone or fistula that can be probed down to the bone in the maxillofacial region that persists for more than 8 weeks, with these conditions it is considered that there is a diagnosis of ONMRM This narrative review takes a journey from history, the drugs involved, and different proposed treatment strategies, emphasizing the behavior that dental surgeons must follow to face these cases early and prevent their evolution.
KEY WORDS: osteonecrosis of the jaws, osteonecrosis due to drugs, bisphosphonates.
How to cite this article
CORDERO, E. & AGÜERO, I. Medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw, update. Int. J. Odontostomat., 16(1):52-59, 2022.