Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), is a benign histiocytic proliferation of uncertain histiogenesis which was first described by Adamson in 1905. It is a regressing disorder which occurs in children usually within first year of life. A child of ten months age reported to the Azeezia College of Dental Sciences and Research with a nodular swelling on the right side of the cheek and gave a history of swelling since the age of 5 months with gradual increase in size which was not associated with pain or itching. A provisional diagnosis of Haemangioma was made and excision biopsy of the lesion was done under general anaesthetia. Depending on the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings a diagnosis of Juvenile Xanthogranuloma was made. The excisional biopsy site healed uneventfully with minimal scar formation. JXG is a benign fibrohistiocytic lesion and a type of granulomatous process. Pathogenesis of the lesion is unknown. It is generally considered to be a reactive lesion. Most common presentation is as solitary cutaneous lesion. Children are affected at a median age of 2 years with a male female ratio of 1.5:1. Classic histopathologic findings include Nodular to diffuse collection of histiocytes with finely vacuolated foamy cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei, Touton giant cells which are the cells with a central wreath of nuclei and peripheral rim of eosinophilic to vacuolated cytoplasm loaded with fat and Inflammatory infiltrate such as lymphocytes and eosinophils. JXG has to be clinically differentiated from Xanthoma, Molluscum contagiosum, Haemangioma and Neurofibroma. Mostly a self-limiting disease which spontaneously resolves. Conservative management is the treatment of choice. Excision may be done due to esthetic and diagnostic reasons. Recurrence is uncommon. JXG is a disease predominantly of early childhood, benign and self-healing.
KEY WORDS: Juvenile xanthogranuloma, case report.
How to cite this article
RAJ, D. & RATHY, R. Juvenile xanthogranuloma: A case report. Int. J. Odontostomat., 12(3):327-331, 2018.