The surgical site infection before, during or after the implant surgery may be the cause of dental implant failure. It is for this reason that the use of antibiotics in implant dentistry has become a protocol established to avoid the postoperative infection. However, there is still no consensus on the most appropriate management protocol. The aim was to conduct a systematic review to date in relation to the use of antibiotics in implant surgery and find which type, dosage and duration is the most effective. An electronic MEDLINE-Pubmed, SciELO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Web of Science were searched since January 1, 2002. The search complemented by manual searching was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a follow up between 3-5 months comparing the administration of various antibiotic regimens versus no antibiotics to patients undergoing dental implant placement. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and complications. Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted. Five RCTs were identified: 3 comparing 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (771 patients), one comparing 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 500 mg 4 times a day for 2 days versus no antibiotics (80 patients), and one comparing 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 500 mg and Amoxicillin/Clavulanate 625mg, both 3 times a day for 5 days (240 patients). The implant success was 94% in patients with antibiotics, with a higher number of patients experiencing implant failures in the groups not receiving antibiotics. The evidence suggests the use of 2 g of amoxicillin given orally 1 h preoperatively significantly reduces failures of dental implants.
KEY WORDS: antibiotic prophylaxis, dental implants, antibiotics, postoperative complications.
How to cite this article
MARÍN, E. A.; FUENTES, R. & CANTÍN, M. Antibiotics use in implantology surgery: a sistematic review. Int. J. Odontostomat., 7(1):59-67, 2013.